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Chapter 4—Observations: CryosphereEdit

This chapter is part of the Fifth Assessment Report of Working Group I. Original text

as published

CLA (Coordinating Lead Authors)Edit

LA (Lead Authors)Edit

Contributing Authors (Click "Expand" to see list)Edit

  • Anthony A. Arendt (USA)
  • David B. Bahr (USA)
  • Michiel van den Broeke (Netherlands)
  • Ross Brown (Canada)
  • J. Graham Cogley (Canada)
  • Alex S. Gardner (USA)
  • Sebastian Gerland (Norway)
  • Stephan Gruber (Switzerland)
  • Christian Haas (Canada)
  • Jon Ove Hagen (Norway)
  • Regine Hock (USA)
  • David Holland (USA)
  • Matthias Huss (Switzerland)
  • Thorsten Markus (USA)
  • Ben Marzeion (Austria)
  • Rob Massom (Australia)
  • Geir Moholdt (USA)
  • Pier Paul Overduin (Germany)
  • Antony Payne (UK)
  • W. Tad Pfeffer (USA)
  • Terry Prowse (Canada)
  • Valentina Radić (Canada)
  • David Robinson (USA)
  • Martin Sharp (Canada)
  • Nikolay Shiklomanov (USA)
  • Sharon Smith (Canada)
  • Sharon Stammerjohn (USA)
  • Isabella Velicogna (USA)
  • Peter Wadhams (UK)
  • Anthony Worby (Australia)
  • Lin Zhao (China)

154 Executive SummaryEdit

154.1 IntroductionEdit

154.2 Sea IceEdit

  • 154.2.1 Background
  • 154.2.2 Arctic Sea Ice
  • 154.2.3 Antarctic Sea Ice

154.3 GlaciersEdit

  • 154.3.1 Current Area and Volume of Glaciers
  • 154.3.2 Methods to Measure Changes in Glacier Length, Area and Volume/Mass
  • 154.3.3 Observed Changes in Glacier Length, Area and Mass

154.4 Ice SheetsEdit

  • 154.4.1 Background
  • 154.4.2 Changes in Mass of Ice Sheets
  • 154.4.3 Total Ice Loss from Both Ice Sheets
  • 154.4.4 Causes of Changes in Ice Sheets
  • 154.4.5 Rapid Ice Sheet Changes

154.5 Seasonal SnowEdit

  • 154.5.1 Background
  • 154.5.2 Hemispheric View
  • 154.5.3 Trends from In Situ Measurements
  • 154.5.4 Changes in Snow Albedo
  • 154 Box 4.1: Interactions of Snow within the Cryosphere

154.6 Lake and River IceEdit

154.7 Frozen GroundEdit

  • 154.7.1 Background
  • 154.7.2 Changes in Permafrost
  • 154.7.3 Subsea Permafrost
  • 154.7.4 Changes in Seasonally Frozen Ground

154.8 SynthesisEdit

154 References Edit

  • 154 Appendix 4.A: Details of Available and Selected Ice Sheet Mass Balance Estimates from 1992 to 2012
  • 154 Frequently Asked Questions
  • 154 FAQ 4.1 How Is Sea Ice Changing in the Arctic and Antarctic?
  • 154 FAQ 4.2 Are Glaciers in Mountain Regions Disappearing?

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