FANDOM


  • Abeysirigunawardena, D. S., and I. J. Walker, 2008: Sea level responses to climatic variability and change in Northern British Columbia. Atmos. Ocean, 46, 277–296
  • Ablain, M., A. Cazenave, S. Guinehut, and G. Valladeau, 2009: A new assessment of global mean sea level from altimeters highlights a reduction of global slope from 2005 to 2008 in agreement with in-situ measurements. Ocean Sci., 5, 193-201
  • Alory, G., S. Wijffels, and G. Meyers, 2007: Observed temperature trends in the Indian Ocean over 1960–1999 and associated mechanisms. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L02606.
  • Álvarez, M., T. Tanhua, H. Brix, C. Lo Monaco, N. Metzl, E. L. McDonagh, and H. L. Bryden, 2011: Decadal biogeochemical changes in the subtropical Indian Ocean associated with Subantarctic Mode Water. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 116, C09016.
  • Andersson, A., C. Klepp, K. Fennig, S. Bakan, H. Grassl, and J. Schulz, 2011: Evaluation of HOAPS-3 ocean surface freshwater flux components. J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol., 50, 379–398.
  • Antonov, J. I., et al., 2010: World Ocean Atlas 2009, Vol. 2: Salinity. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 68. S. Levitus, Ed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA, 184 pp.
  • Aoki, S., S. R. Rintoul, S. Ushio, S. Watanabe, and N. L. Bindoff, 2005: Freshening of the Adelie Land Bottom Water near 140°E. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L23601.
  • Ballantyne, A. P., C. B. Alden, J. B. Miller, P. P. Tans, and J. W. C. White, 2012: Increase in observed net carbon dioxide uptake by land and oceans during the past 50 years. Nature, 488, 70–72.
  • Barker, P. M., J. R. Dunn, C. M. Domingues, and S. E. Wijffels, 2011: Pressure sensor drifts in Argo and their impacts. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 28, 1036–1049.
  • Bates, N. R., 2007: Interannual variability of the oceanic CO₂ sink in the subtropical gyre of the North Atlantic Ocean over the last 2 decades. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 112, C09013.
  • Bates, N. R., 2012: Multi-decadal uptake of carbon dioxide into subtropical mode water of the North Atlantic Ocean. Biogeosciences, 9, 2649–2659.
  • Beckley, B. D., et al., 2010: Assessment of the Jason-2 extension to the TOPEX/ Poseidon, Jason-1 sea-surface height time series for global mean sea level monitoring. Mar. Geodesy, 33, 447–471.
  • Beltrami, H., J. E. Smerdon, H. N. Pollack, and S. P. Huang, 2002: Continental heat gain in the global climate system. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 3.
  • Bersch, M., I. Yashayaev, and K. P. Koltermann, 2007: Recent changes of the thermohaline circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic. Ocean Dyn., 57, 223– 235
  • Bindoff, N. L., and T. J. McDougall, 1994: Diagnosing climate-change and ocean ventilation using hydrographic data. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 1137–1152.
  • Bindoff, N. L., et al., 2007: Observations: Oceanic climate change and sea level. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H. L. Miller (eds.)] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
  • Bingham, R. J., and C. W. Hughes, 2009: Signature of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in sea level along the east coast of North America. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L02603.
  • Boening, C., J. K. Willis, F. W. Landerer, R. S. Nerem, and J. Fasullo, 2012: The 2011 La Niña: So strong, the oceans fell. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L19602.
  • Bograd, S. J., C. G. Castro, E. Di Lorenzo, D. M. Palacios, H. Bailey, W. Gilly, and F. P. Chavez, 2008: Oxygen declines and the shoaling of the hypoxic boundary in the California Current. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L12607.
  • Böning, C. W., A. Dispert, M. Visbeck, S. R. Rintoul, and F. U. Schwarzkopf, 2008: The response of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to recent climate change. Nature Geosci., 1, 864–869.
  • Borges, A. V., and N. Gypens, 2010: Carbonate chemistry in the coastal zone responds more strongly to eutrophication than to ocean acidification. Limnol. Oceanogr., 55, 346–353.
  • Boyer, T., S. Levitus, J. Antonov, R. Locarnini, A. Mishonov, H. Garcia, and S. A. Josey, 2007: Changes in freshwater content in the North Atlantic Ocean 1955–2006. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L16603.
  • Boyer, T. P., S. Levitus, J. I. Antonov, R. A. Locarnini, and H. E. Garcia, 2005: Linear trends in salinity for the World Ocean, 1955–1998. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L01604.
  • Boyer, T. P., et al., 2006: Introduction. World Ocean Database 2005 (DVD), NOAA Atlas NESDIS, Vol. 60 [S. Levitus, (ed.)]. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp. 15–37.
  • Boyer, T. P., et al., 2009: Chapter 1: Introduction. World Ocean Database 2009, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 66, DVD ed., S. Levitus, Ed., U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Wash., D.C., USA, pp. 216.
  • Broecker, W., and E. Clark, 2001: A dramatic Atlantic dissolution event at the onset of the last glaciation. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 2, 2001GC000185.
  • Bromirski, P. D., A. J. Miller, R. E. Flick, and G. Auad, 2011: Dynamical suppression of sea level rise along the Pacific coast of North America: Indications for imminent acceleration. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 116, C07005.
  • Bryden, H. L., H. R. Longworth, and S. A. Cunningham, 2005: Slowing of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 25°N. Nature, 438, 655–657.
  • Byrne, R. H., S. Mecking, R. A. Feely, and X. W. Liu, 2010: Direct observations of basinwide acidification of the North Pacific Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L02601.
  • Cai, W., 2006: Antarctic ozone depletion causes an intensification of the Southern Ocean super-gyre circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L03712.
  • Calafat, F. M., D. P. Chambers, and M. N. Tsimplis, 2012: Mechanisms of decadal sea level variability in the eastern North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 117, C09022.
  • Caldeira, K., and M. E. Wickett, 2003: Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature, 425, 365–365.
  • Carson, M., and D. E. Harrison, 2010: Regional interdecadal variability in bias corrected ocean temperature data. J. Clim., 23, 2847–2855.
  • Carton, J. A., and A. Santorelli, 2008: Global decadal upper-ocean heat content as viewed in nine analyses. J. Clim., 21, 6015–6035.
  • Carton, J. A., B. S. Giese, and S. A. Grodsky, 2005: Sea level rise and the warming of the oceans in the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) ocean reanalysis. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 110, C09006.
  • Cazenave, A., et al., 2009: Sea level budget over 2003–2008: A re-evaluation from GRACE space gravimetry, satellite altimetry and Argo. Mar. Geodesy, 65, 447 -471
  • Cazenave, A., et al., 2012: Estimating ENSO influence on the global mean sea level, 1993–2010. Mar. Geodesy, 35, 82–97.
  • Chambers, D. P., J. Wahr, and R. S. Nerem, 2004: Preliminary observations of global ocean mass variations with GRACE. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L13310.
  • Chambers, D. P., M. A. Merrifield, and R. S. Nerem, 2012: Is there a 60-year oscillation in global mean sea level? Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L18607.
  • Chambers, D. P., J. Wahr, M. E. Tamisiea, and R. S. Nerem, 2010: Ocean mass from GRACE and glacial isostatic adjustment. J. Geophys. Res.–Sol. Ea., 115, B11415.
  • Chan, F., J. A. Barth, J. Lubchenco, A. Kirincich, H. Weeks, W. T. Peterson, and B. A. Menge, 2008: Emergence of anoxia in the California current large marine ecosystem. Science, 319, 920–920.
  • Chavez, F. P., M. Messié, and J. T. Pennington, 2011: Marine primary production in relation to climate variability and change. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci., 3, 227–260.
  • Church, J. A., and N. J. White, 2006: A 20th century acceleration in global sea-level rise. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L01602.
  • Church, J. A., and N. J. White, 2011: Sea-level rise from the late 19th to the early 21st century. Surv. Geophys., 32, 585–602.
  • Church, J. A., J. R. Hunter, K. L. McInnes, and N. J. White, 2006: Sea-level rise around the Australian coastline and the changing frequency of extreme sea-level events. Aust. Meteorol. Mag., 55, 253–260.
  • Church, J. A., N. J. White, R. Coleman, K. Lambeck, and J. X. Mitrovica, 2004: Estimates of the regional distribution of sea level rise over the 1950–2000 period. J. Clim., 17, 2609–2625.
  • Church, J. A., et al., 2011: Revisiting the Earth’s sea-level and energy budgets from 1961 to 2008. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18601.
  • Cianca, A., P. Helmke, B. Mourino, M. J. Rueda, O. Llinas, and S. Neuer, 2007: Decadal analysis of hydrography and in situ nutrient budgets in the western and eastern North Atlantic subtropical gyre. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 112, C07025.
  • Compo, G. P., et al., 2011: The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Q. J. R. Meteor. Soc., 137, 1–28.
  • Cravatte, S., T. Delcroix, D. X. Zhang, M. McPhaden, and J. Leloup, 2009: Observed freshening and warming of the western Pacific Warm Pool. Clim. Dyn., 33, 565– 589
  • Cummins, P. F., and H. J. Freeland, 2007: Variability of the North Pacific current and its bifurcation. Prog. Oceanogr., 75, 253–265.
  • Cunningham, S. A., S. G. Alderson, B. A. King, and M. A. Brandon, 2003: Transport and variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in Drake Passage. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 108, 8084.
  • Cunningham, S. A., et al., 2007: Temporal variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5°N. Science, 317, 935–938.
  • Curry, R., and C. Mauritzen, 2005: Dilution of the northern North Atlantic Ocean in recent decades. Science, 308, 1772–1774.
  • Curry, R., B. Dickson, and I. Yashayaev, 2003: A change in the freshwater balance of the Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades. Nature, 426, 826–829.
  • D’Onofrio, E. E., M. M. E. Fiore, and J. L. Pousa, 2008: Changes in the regime of storm surges at Buenos Aires, Argentina. J. Coast. Res., 24, 260–265.
  • Dee, D. P., et al., 2011: The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q. J. R. Meteor. Soc., 137, 553–597.
  • Delcroix, T., S. Cravatte, and M. J. McPhaden, 2007: Decadal variations and trends in tropical Pacific sea surface salinity since 1970. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 112, C03012.
  • Deutsch, C., S. Emerson, and L. Thompson, 2005: Fingerprints of climate change in North Pacific oxygen. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L16604.
  • Di Lorenzo, E., et al., 2009: Nutrient and salinity decadal variations in the central and eastern North Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L14601.
  • Diaz, R. J., and R. Rosenberg, 2008: Spreading dead zones and consequences for marine ecosystems. Science, 321, 926–929.
  • Dickson, B., I. Yashayaev, J. Meincke, B. Turrell, S. Dye, and J. Holfort, 2002: Rapid freshening of the deep North Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades. Nature, 416, 832–837.
  • Dickson, R. R., et al., 2008: The overflow flux west of Iceland: variability, origins and forcing. In: Arctic-Subarctic Ocean Fluxes [R. R. Dickson, J. Meincke, and P. B. Rhines (eds.)] Springer Science+Business Media, New York, NY, USA, and Heidelberg, Germany, 443-474.
  • Dohan, K., et al., 2010: Measuring the global ocean surface circulation with satellite and in situ observations. In: Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (Vol. 2). Venice, Italy,21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison, D.E. & Stammer, D., Eds., European Space Agency, ESA Publication WPP-306, doi:10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.23
  • Domingues, C. M., J. A. Church, N. J. White, P. J. Gleckler, S. E. Wijffels, P. M. Barker, and J. R. Dunn, 2008: Improved estimates of upper-ocean warming and multidecadal sea-level rise. Nature, 453, 1090–1093.
  • Doney, S. C., V. J. Fabry, R. A. Feely, and J. A. Kleypas, 2009: Ocean Acidification: The other CO₂ problem. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci., 1, 169–192.
  • Dore, J. E., R. Lukas, D. W. Sadler, M. J. Church, and D. M. Karl, 2009: Physical and biogeochemical modulation of ocean acidification in the central North Pacific. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 106, 12235–12240.
  • Douglas, B. C., 2001: Sea level change in the era of the recording tide gauge. In: Sea Level Rise: History and Consequences [B. C. Douglas, M. S. Kearney, and S. P. Leatherman (eds.)]. Academic Press, San Diego,CA, USA, pp. 37–64.
  • Douglass, E., D. Roemmich, and D. Stammer, 2006: Interannual variability in northeast Pacific circulation. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 111, C04001.
  • Drinkwater, K. F., 2006: The regime shift of the 1920s and 1930s in the North Atlantic. Prog. Oceanogr., 68, 134–151.
  • Duce, R. A., et al., 2008: Impacts of atmospheric anthropogenic nitrogen on the open ocean. Science, 320, 893–897.
  • Ducet, N., P. Y. Le Traon, and G. Reverdin, 2000: Global high-resolution mapping of ocean circulation from TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1 and-2. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 105, 19477–19498.
  • Durack, P. J., and S. E. Wijffels, 2010: Fifty-year trends in global ocean salinities and their relationship to broad-scale warming. J. Clim., 23, 4342–4362.
  • Durack, P. J., S. E. Wijffels, and R. J. Matear, 2012: Ocean salinities reveal strong global water cycle intensification during 1950 to 2000. Science, 336, 455–458.
  • Egleston, E. S., C. L. Sabine, and F. M. M. Morel, 2010: Revelle revisited: Buffer factors that quantify the response of ocean chemistry to changes in DIC and alkalinity. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 24, GB1002.
  • Ekman, M., 1988: The world’s longest continued series of sea-level observations. Pure Appl. Geophys., 127, 73–77.
  • Emori, S., and S. J. Brown, 2005: Dynamic and thermodynamic changes in mean and extreme precipitation under changed climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L17706.
  • Fabry, V. J., B. A. Seibel, R. A. Feely, and J. C. Orr, 2008: Impacts of ocean acidification on marine fauna and ecosystem processes. Ices J. Mar. Sci., 65, 414–432.
  • Farneti, R., T. L. Delworth, A. J. Rosati, S. M. Griffies, and F. Zeng, 2010: The role of mesoscale eddies in the rectification of the Southern Ocean response to climate change. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 1539–1557.
  • Feely, R. A., S. C. Doney, and S. R. Cooley, 2009: Ocean acidification: Present conditions and future changes in a high-CO₂ world. Oceanography, 22, 36–47.
  • Feely, R. A., T. Takahashi, R. Wanninkhof, M. J. McPhaden, C. E. Cosca, S. C. Sutherland, and M. E. Carr, 2006: Decadal variability of the air-sea CO₂ fluxes in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 111, C08s90.
  • Feng, M., M. J. McPhaden, and T. Lee, 2010: Decadal variability of the Pacific subtropical cells and their influence on the southeast Indian Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L09606.
  • Fischer, J., M. Visbeck, R. Zantopp, and N. Nunes, 2010: Interannual to decadal variability of outflow from the Labrador Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L24610.
  • Frajka-Williams, E., S. A. Cunningham, H. Bryden, and B. A. King, 2011: Variability of Antarctic Bottom Water at 24.5°N in the Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 116, C11026.
  • Freeland, H., et al., 2010: Argo—A decade of progress. In: Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (Vol. 2). Venice, Italy,21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison, D.E. & Stammer, D., Eds., European Space Agency, ESA Publication WPP-306, doi:10.5270/OceanObs09. cwp.32
  • Freeland, H. J., and D. Gilbert, 2009: Estimate of the steric contribution to global sea level rise from a comparison of the WOCE one-time survey with 2006–2008 Argo observations. Atmos. Ocean, 47, 292–298.
  • Frölicher, T. L., F. Joos, G. K. Plattner, M. Steinacher, and S. C. Doney, 2009: Natural variability and anthropogenic trends in oceanic oxygen in a coupled carbon cycle-climate model ensemble. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, Gb1003.
  • Fusco, G., V. Artale, Y. Cotroneo, and G. Sannino, 2008: Thermohaline variability of Mediterranean Water in the Gulf of Cadiz, 1948–1999. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 55, 1624–1638.
  • Galloway, J. N., et al., 2008: Transformation of the nitrogen cycle: Recent trends, questions, and potential solutions. Science, 320, 889–892.
  • Garabato, A. C. N., L. Jullion, D. P. Stevens, K. J. Heywood, and B. A. King, 2009: Variability of Subantarctic Mode Water and Antarctic Intermediate Water in the Drake Passage during the late-twentieth and early-twenty-first centuries. J. Clim., 22, 3661–3688.
  • Garzoli, S. L., M. O. Baringer, S. F. Dong, R. C. Perez, and Q. Yao, 2013: South Atlantic meridional fluxes. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 71, 21–32.
  • Gebbie, G., and P. Huybers, 2012: The mean age of ocean waters inferred from radiocarbon observations: sensitivity to surface sources and accounting for mixing histories. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 42, 291–305.
  • Gemmrich, J., B. Thomas, and R. Bouchard, 2011: Observational changes and trends in northeast Pacific wave records. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L22601.
  • Gerber, M., F. Joos, M. Vázquez-Rodríguez, F. Touratier, and C. Goyet, 2009: Regional air-sea fluxes of anthropogenic carbon inferred with an Ensemble Kalman Filter. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, Gb1013.
  • Giese, B. S., G. A. Chepurin, J. A. Carton, T. P. Boyer, and H. F. Seidel, 2011: Impact of bathythermograph temperature bias models on an ocean reanalysis. J. Clim., 24, 84–93.
  • Gilbert, D., N. N. Rabalais, R. J. Diaz, and J. Zhang, 2010: Evidence for greater oxygen decline rates in the coastal ocean than in the open ocean. Biogeosciences, 7, 2283–2296.
  • Giles, K. A., S. W. Laxon, A. L. Ridout, D. J. Wingham, and S. Bacon, 2012: Western Arctic Ocean freshwater storage increased by wind-driven spin-up of the Beaufort Gyre. Nature Geosci., 5, 194–197.
  • Gille, S. T., 2008: Decadal-scale temperature trends in the Southern Hemisphere ocean. J. Clim., 21, 4749–4765.
  • Gillett, N. P., and P. A. Stott, 2009: Attribution of anthropogenic influence on seasonal sea level pressure. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L23709.
  • Gladyshev, S. V., M. N. Koshlyakov, and R. Y. Tarakanov, 2008: Currents in the Drake Passage based on observations in 2007. Oceanology, 48, 759–770.
  • Gleckler, P. J., et al., 2012: Human-induced global ocean warming on multidecadal timescales. Nature Clim. Change, 2, 524–529.
  • Gloor, M., J. L. Sarmiento, and N. Gruber, 2010: What can be learned about carbon cycle climate feedbacks from the CO₂ airborne fraction? Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7739–7751.
  • Goni, G. J., F. Bringas, and P. N. DiNezio, 2011: Observed low frequency variability of the Brazil Current front. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 116, C10037.
  • González-Dávila, M., J. M. Santana-Casiano, M. J. Rueda, and O. Llinas, 2010: The water column distribution of carbonate system variables at the ESTOC site from 1995 to 2004. Biogeosciences, 7, 3067–3081.
  • Gouretski, V., and K. P. Koltermann, 2007: How much is the ocean really warming? Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L01610.
  • Gouretski, V., and F. Reseghetti, 2010: On depth and temperature biases in bathythermograph data: Development of a new correction scheme based on analysis of a global ocean database. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 57, 812–833.
  • Gouretski, V., J. Kennedy, T. Boyer, and A. Kohl, 2012: Consistent near-surface ocean warming since 1900 in two largely independent observing networks. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L19606.
  • Graven, H. D., N. Gruber, R. Key, S. Khatiwala, and X. Giraud, 2012: Changing controls on oceanic radiocarbon: New insights on shallow-to-deep ocean exchange and anthropogenic CO₂ uptake. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 117, C10005.
  • Griffies, S. M., et al., 2009: Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (COREs). Ocean Model., 26, 1–46.
  • Grinsted, A., J. C. Moore, and S. Jevrejeva, 2012: Homogeneous record of Atlantic hurricane surge threat since 1923. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 109, 19601– 19605
  • Grist, J. P., R. Marsh, and S. A. Josey, 2009: On the relationship between the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and the surface-forced overturning streamfunction. J. Clim., 22, 4989–5002.
  • Gruber, N., et al., 2009: Oceanic sources, sinks, and transport of atmospheric CO₂. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, Gb1005.
  • Gu, G. J., R. F. Adler, G. J. Huffman, and S. Curtis, 2007: Tropical rainfall variability on interannual-to-interdecadal and longer time scales derived from the GPCP monthly product. J. Clim., 20, 4033–4046.
  • Gulev, S., T. Jung, and E. Ruprecht, 2007: Estimation of the impact of sampling errors in the VOS observations on air-sea fluxes. Part II: Impact on trends and interannual variability. J. Clim., 20, 302–315.
  • Gulev, S., et al., 2010: Surface Energy and CO₂ Fluxes in the Global Ocean-Atmosphere- Ice System. In: Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society. Venice, Italy. 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison, D.E. & Stammer, D., Eds., European Space Agency, ESA Publication WPP-306, doi:10.5270/OceanObs09.pp.19
  • Gulev, S. K., and V. Grigorieva, 2006: Variability of the winter wind waves and swell in the North Atlantic and North Pacific as revealed by the voluntary observing ship data. J. Clim., 19, 5667–5685.
  • Haigh, I., R. Nicholls, and N. Wells, 2010: Assessing changes in extreme sea levels: Application to the English Channel, 1900–2006. Cont. Shelf Res., 30, 1042–1055.
  • Hallberg, R., and A. Gnanadesikan, 2006: The role of eddies in determining the structure and response of the wind-driven Southern Hemisphere overturning: Results from the Modeling Eddies in the Southern Ocean (MESO) project. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 2232–2252.
  • Hamon, M., G. Reverdin, and P. Y. Le Traon, 2012: Empirical correction of XBT data. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 29, 960–973.
  • Hansen, B., and S. Osterhus, 2007: Faroe Bank Channel overflow 1995–2005. Prog. Oceanogr., 75, 817–856.
  • Hansen, B., H. Hatun, R. Kristiansen, S. M. Olsen, and S. Osterhus, 2010: Stability and forcing of the Iceland-Faroe inflow of water, heat, and salt to the Arctic. Ocean Sci., 6, 1013–1026.
  • Hatun, H., A. B. Sando, H. Drange, B. Hansen, and H. Valdimarsson, 2005: Influence of the Atlantic subpolar gyre on the thermohaline circulation. Science, 309, 1841–1844.
  • Held, I. M., and B. J. Soden, 2006: Robust responses of the hydrological cycle to global warming. J. Clim., 19, 5686–5699.
  • Helm, K. P., N. L. Bindoff, and J. A. Church, 2010: Changes in the global hydrological cycle inferred from ocean salinity. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L18701.
  • Helm, K. P., N. L. Bindoff, and J. A. Church, 2011: Observed decreases in oxygen content of the global ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L23602.
  • Hemer, M. A., 2010: Historical trends in Southern Ocean storminess: Long-term variability of extreme wave heights at Cape Sorell, Tasmania. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L18601.
  • Hemer, M. A., J. A. Church, and J. R. Hunter, 2010: Variability and trends in the directional wave climate of the Southern Hemisphere. Int. J. Climatol., 30, 475– 491
  • Hill, K. L., S. R. Rintoul, R. Coleman, and K. R. Ridgway, 2008: Wind forced low frequency variability of the East Australia Current. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L08602.
  • Holgate, S. J., 2007: On the decadal rates of sea level change during the twentieth century. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L01602.
  • Holliday, N., et al., 2008: Reversal of the 1960s to 1990s freshening trend in the northeast North Atlantic and Nordic Seas. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L03614.
  • Hong, B. G., W. Sturges, and A. J. Clarke, 2000: Sea level on the US East Coast: Decadal variability caused by open ocean wind-curl forcing. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 2088–2098.
  • Hood, M., et al., 2010: Ship-based repeat hydrography: A strategy for a sustained global program. In: Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (Vol. 2). Venice, Italy. 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison, D.E. & Stammer, D., Eds., European Space Agency, ESA Publication WPP-306, doi:10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.44
  • Hosoda, S., T. Suga, N. Shikama, and K. Mizuno, 2009: Global surface layer salinity change detected by Argo and its implication for hydrological cycle intensification. J. Oceanogr., 65, 579–586.
  • Houston, J. R., and R. G. Dean, 2011: Sea-level acceleration based on US tide gauges and extensions of previous global-gauge analyses. J. Coast. Res., 27, 409–417.
  • Hughes, C. W., P. L. Woodworth, M. P. Meredith, V. Stepanov, T. Whitworth, and A. R. Pyne, 2003: Coherence of Antarctic sea levels, Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode, and flow through Drake Passage. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1464.
  • Huhn, O., M. Rhein, M. Hoppema, and S. van Heuven, 2013: Decline of deep and bottom water ventilation and slowing down of anthropogenic carbon storage in the Weddell Sea, 1984–2011. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 76, 66–84.
  • Huhn, O., H. H. Hellmer, M. Rhein, C. Rodehacke, W. G. Roether, M. P. Schodlok, and M. Schröder, 2008: Evidence of deep- and bottom-water formation in the western Weddell Sea. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 55, 1098–1116.
  • Ingvaldsen, R. B., L. Asplin, and H. Loeng, 2004: Velocity field of the western entrance to the Barents Sea. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 109, C03021.
  • IPCC, 2011: Workshop Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Workshop on Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Biology and Ecosystems [C. B. Field, V. Barros, T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, K. J. Mach, G.-K. Plattner, M. D. Mastrandrea, M. Tignor and K. L. Ebi (eds.)]. IPCC Working Group II Technical Support Unit, Carnegie Institution, Stanford, CA, USA 164 pp.
  • Irwin, A. J., and M. J. Oliver, 2009: Are ocean deserts getting larger? Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L18609.
  • Ishidoya, S., S. Aoki, D. Goto, T. Nakazawa, S. Taguchi, and P. K. Patra, 2012: Time and space variations of the O2/N2 ratio in the troposphere over Japan and estimation of the global CO₂ budget for the period 2000–2010. Tellus B, 64, 18964.
  • Ishii, M., and M. Kimoto, 2009: Reevaluation of historical ocean heat content variations with time-varying XBT and MBT depth bias corrections. J. Oceanogr., 65, 287–299.
  • Ishii, M., N. Kosugi, D. Sasano, S. Saito, T. Midorikawa, and H. Y. Inoue, 2011: Ocean acidification off the south coast of Japan: A result from time series observations of CO₂ parameters from 1994 to 2008. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 116, C06022.
  • Ishii, M., et al., 2009: Spatial variability and decadal trend of the oceanic CO₂ in the western equatorial Pacific warm/fresh water. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II., 56, 591–606. Jackson, J. M., E. C. Carmack, F. A. McLaughlin, S. E. Allen, and R. G. Ingram, 2010:
  • Identification, characterization, and change of the near-surface temperature maximum in the Canada Basin, 1993–2008. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 115, C05021.
  • Jacobs, S. S., and C. F. Giulivi, 2010: Large multidecadal salinity trends near the Pacific-Antarctic continental margin. J. Clim., 23, 4508–4524.
  • Jevrejeva, S., A. Grinsted, J. C. Moore, and S. Holgate, 2006: Nonlinear trends and multiyear cycles in sea level records. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 111, C09012.
  • Jevrejeva, S., J. C. Moore, A. Grinsted, and P. L. Woodworth, 2008: Recent global sea level acceleration started over 200 years ago? Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L08715.
  • Jochumsen, K., D. Quadfasel, H. Valdimarsson, and S. Jonsson, 2012: Variability of the Denmark Strait overflow: Moored time series from 1996–2011. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 117, C12003.
  • Johns, W. E., et al., 2011: Continuous, array-based estimates of Atlantic Ocean heat transport at 26.5°N. J. Clim., 24, 2429–2449.
  • Johnson, G. C., and S. E. Wijffels, 2011: Ocean density change contributions to sea level rise. Oceanography, 24, 112–121.
  • Johnson, G. C., S. G. Purkey, and J. L. Bullister, 2008a: Warming and freshening in the abyssal southeastern Indian Ocean. J. Clim., 21, 5351–5363.
  • Johnson, G. C., S. G. Purkey, and J. M. Toole, 2008b: Reduced Antarctic meridional overturning circulation reaches the North Atlantic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L22601.
  • Jónsson, S., and H. Valdimarsson, 2012: Water mass transport variability to the North Icelandic shelf, 1994–2010. Ices J. Mar. Sci., 69, 809–815.
  • Josey, S. A., J. P. Grist, and R. Marsh, 2009: Estimates of meridional overturning circulation variability in the North Atlantic from surface density flux fields. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 114, C09022.
  • Kalnay, E., et al., 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 437–471.
  • Kanamitsu, M., W. Ebisuzaki, J. Woollen, S. K. Yang, J. J. Hnilo, M. Fiorino, and G. L. Potter, 2002: NCEP-DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 83, 1631–1643.
  • Kanzow, T., U. Send, and M. McCartney, 2008: On the variability of the deep meridional transports in the tropical North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 55, 1601–1623.
  • Kanzow, T., et al., 2007: Observed flow compensation associated with the MOC at 26.5°N in the Atlantic. Science, 317, 938–941.
  • Kawai, Y., T. Doi, H. Tomita, and H. Sasaki, 2008: Decadal-scale changes in meridional heat transport across 24°N in the Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 113, C08021.
  • Kawano, T., T. Doi, H. Uchida, S. Kouketsu, M. Fukasawa, Y. Kawai, and K. Katsumata, 2010: Heat content change in the Pacific Ocean between the 1990s and 2000s. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 57, 1141–1151.
  • Kazmin, A. S., 2012: Variability of the large-scale frontal zones: analysis of the global satellite information. Mod. Prob. Remote Sens. Ea. Space, 9, 213–218 (in Russian).
  • Keeling, C. D., H. Brix, and N. Gruber, 2004: Seasonal and long-term dynamics of the upper ocean carbon cycle at Station ALOHA near Hawaii. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, GB4006.
  • Keeling, R.F. and A. C. Manning, 2014: Studies of Recent Changes in Atmospheric O2 Content. In: Holland, H.D. and Turekian, K.K., eds. Treatise on Geochemistry, 2nd Edition, Volume 5, pp.385-404. Oxford: Elsevier
  • Keeling, R. F., A. Kortzinger, and N. Gruber, 2010: Ocean deoxygenation in a warming world. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci., 2, 199–229.
  • Key, R. M., et al., 2004: A global ocean carbon climatology: Results from Global Data Analysis Project (GLODAP). Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, Gb4031.
  • Khatiwala, S., F. Primeau, and T. Hall, 2009: Reconstruction of the history of anthropogenic CO₂ concentrations in the ocean. Nature, 462, 346–349.
  • Khatiwala, S., et al., 2013: Global ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon. Biogeosciences, 10, 2169–2191.
  • Kieke, D., M. Rhein, L. Stramma, W. M. Smethie, D. A. LeBel, and W. Zenk, 2006: Changes in the CFC inventories and formation rates of Upper Labrador Sea Water, 1997–2001. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 64–86.
  • Kim, T. W., K. Lee, R. G. Najjar, H. D. Jeong, and H. J. Jeong, 2011: Increasing N abundance in the northwestern Pacific Ocean due to atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Science, 334, 505–509.
  • King, M. A., M. Keshin, P. L. Whitehouse, I. D. Thomas, G. Milne, and R. E. M. Riva, 2012: Regional biases in absolute sea-level estimates from tide gauge data due to residual unmodeled vertical land movement. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L14604.
  • Knorr, W., 2009: Is the airborne fraction of anthropogenic CO₂ emissions increasing? Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L21710.
  • Kobayashi, T., K. Mizuno, and T. Suga, 2012: Long-term variations of surface and intermediate waters in the southern Indian Ocean along 32°S. J. Oceanogr., 68, 243–265.
  • Komar, P. D., and J. C. Allan, 2008: Increasing hurricane-generated wave heights along the US East Coast and their climate controls. J. Coast. Res., 24, 479–488.
  • Koshlyakov, M. N., Lisina, II, E. G. Morozov, and R. Y. Tarakanov, 2007: Absolute geostrophic currents in the Drake Passage based on observations in 2003 and 2005. Oceanology, 47, 451–463.
  • Koshlyakov, M. N., S. V. Gladyshev, R. Y. Tarakanov, and D. A. Fedorov, 2011: Currents in the western Drake Passage by the observations in January 2010. Oceanology, 51, 187–198.
  • Kouketsu, S., M. Fukasawa, D. Sasano, Y. Kumamoto, T. Kawano, H. Uchida, and T. Doi, 2010: Changes in water properties around North Pacific intermediate water between the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 57, 1177–1187.
  • Kouketsu, S., et al., 2009: Changes in water properties and transports along 24°N in the North Pacific between 1985 and 2005. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 114, C01008.
  • Kouketsu, S., et al., 2011: Deep ocean heat content changes estimated from observation and reanalysis product and their influence on sea level change. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 116, C03012.
  • Krueger, O., F. Schenk, F. Feser, and R. Weisse, 2013: Inconsistencies between longterm trends in storminess derived from the 20CR reanalysis and observations. J. Clim., 26, 868–874.
  • Large, W. G., and S. G. Yeager, 2009: The global climatology of an interannually varying air-sea flux data set. Clim. Dyn., 33, 341–364.
  • Large, W. G., and S. G. Yeager, 2012: On the observed trends and changes in global sea surface temperature and air–sea heat fluxes (1984–2006). J. Clim., 25, 6123–6135.
  • Le Quéré, C., T. Takahashi, E. T. Buitenhuis, C. Roedenbeck, and S. C. Sutherland, 2010: Impact of climate change and variability on the global oceanic sink of CO₂. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 24, Gb4007.
  • Le Quéré, C., et al., 2007: Saturation of the Southern Ocean CO₂ sink due to recent climate change. Science, 316, 1735–8.
  • Lenton, A., et al., 2012: The observed evolution of oceanic pCO₂ and its drivers over the last two decades. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 26, Gb2021.
  • Letetrel, C., M. Marcos, B. M. Miguez, and G. Wöppelmann, 2010: Sea level extremes in Marseille (NW Mediterranean) during 1885–2008. Cont. Shelf Res., 30, 1267– 1274
  • Leuliette, E. W., and L. Miller, 2009: Closing the sea level rise budget with altimetry, Argo, and GRACE. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L04608.
  • Leuliette, E. W., and R. Scharroo, 2010: Integrating Jason-2 into a multiple-altimeter climate data record. Mar. Geodesy, 33, 504–517.
  • Leuliette, E. W., and J. K. Willis, 2011: Balancing the sea level budget. Oceanography, 24, 122–129.
  • Levitus, S., 1989: Interpentadal variability of temperature and salinity at intermediate depths of the North-Atlantic Ocean, 1970–1974 variabilityersus 1955–1959. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 94, 6091–6131.
  • Levitus, S., J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, R. A. Locarnini, H. E. Garcia, and A. V. Mishonov, 2009: Global ocean heat content 1955–2008 in light of recently revealed instrumentation problems. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L07608.
  • Levitus, S., et al., 2012: World ocean heat content and thermosteric sea level change (0–2000m) 1955–2010. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L10603.
  • Lewis, E. L., and N. P. Fofonoff, 1979: A practical salinity scale. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 9, 446.
  • Li, G., B. Ren, J. Zheng, and C. Yang, 2011: Trend singular value decomposition analysis and its application to the global ocean surface latent heat flux and SST anomalies. J. Clim., 24, 2931–2948.
  • Llovel, W., S. Guinehut, and A. Cazenave, 2010: Regional and interannual variability in sea level over 2002–2009 based on satellite altimetry, Argo float data and GRACE ocean mass. Ocean Dyn., 60, 1193–1204.
  • Llovel, W., B. Meyssignac, and A. Cazenave, 2011: Steric sea level variations over 2004–2010 as a function of region and depth: Inference on the mass component variability in the North Atlantic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L15608.
  • Llovel, W., A. Cazenave, P. Rogel, A. Lombard, and M. B. Nguyen, 2009: Two dimensional reconstruction of past sea level (1950–2003) from tide gauge data and an Ocean General Circulation Model. Clim. Past, 5, 217–227.
  • Lowe, J. A., and J. M. Gregory, 2006: Understanding projections of sea level rise in a Hadley Centre coupled climate model. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 111, C11014.
  • Lowe, J. A., et al., 2010: Past and future changes in extreme sea levels and waves. In: Understanding Sea-Level Rise and Variability [J. A. Church, P. L. Woodworth, T. Aarup, and W. S. Wilson (eds.)]. Wiley-Blackwell, New York, NY, USA, 326-375.
  • Lozier, M. S., and N. M. Stewart, 2008: On the temporally varying northward penetration of Mediterranean Overflow Water and eastward penetration of Labrador Sea water. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 2097–2103.
  • Lumpkin, R., and K. Speer, 2007: Global ocean meridional overturning. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 2550–2562.
  • Lumpkin, R., and S. Garzoli, 2011: Interannual to decadal changes in the western South Atlantic’s surface circulation. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 116, C01014.
  • Lyman, J. M., and G. C. Johnson, 2008: Estimating annual global upper-ocean heat content anomalies despite irregular in situ ocean sampling. J. Clim., 21, 5629– 5641
  • Lyman, J. M., et al., 2010: Robust warming of the global upper ocean. Nature, 465, 334–337.
  • Macrander, A., U. Send, H. Valdimarsson, S. Jonsson, and R. H. Kase, 2005: Interannual changes in the overflow from the Nordic Seas into the Atlantic Ocean through Denmark Strait. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L06606.
  • Marcos, M., M. N. Tsimplis, and A. G. P. Shaw, 2009: Sea level extremes in southern Europe. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 114, C01007.
  • Marcos, M., M. N. Tsimplis, and F. M. Calafat, 2012: Inter-annual and decadal sea level variations in the north-western Pacific marginal seas. Prog. Oceanogr., 105, 4–21.
  • Marshall, G. J., 2003: Trends in the southern annular mode from observations and reanalyses. J. Clim., 16, 4134–4143.
  • Masters, D., R. S. Nerem, C. Choe, E. Leuliette, B. Beckley, N. White, and M. Ablain, 2012: Comparison of global mean sea level time series from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2. Mar. Geodesy, 35, 20–41.
  • Masuda, S., et al., 2010: Simulated rapid warming of abyssal North Pacific waters. Science, 329, 319–322.
  • Matear, R. J., and A. C. Hirst, 2003: Long-term changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations in the ocean caused by protracted global warming. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 17, 1125.
  • Mauritzen, C., A. Melsom, and R. T. Sutton, 2012: Importance of density-compensated temperature change for deep North Atlantic Ocean heat uptake. Nature Geosci., 5, 905–910.
  • Mauritzen, C., et al., 2011: Closing the loop—Approaches to monitoring the state of the Arctic Mediterranean during the International Polar Year 2007–2008. Prog. Oceanogr., 90, 62–89.
  • McCarthy, G., E. McDonagh, and B. King, 2011: Decadal variability of thermocline and intermediate waters at 24°S in the South Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41, 157–165.
  • McCarthy, G., et al., 2012: Observed interannual variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5°N. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L19609.
  • McDonagh, E. L., H. L. Bryden, B. A. King, R. J. Sanders, S. A. Cunningham, and R. Marsh, 2005: Decadal changes in the south Indian Ocean thermocline. J. Clim., 18, 1575–1590.
  • McKinley, G. A., A. R. Fay, T. Takahashi, and N. Metzl, 2011: Convergence of atmospheric and North Atlantic carbon dioxide trends on multidecadal timescales. Nature Geosci., 4, 606–610.
  • McPhee, M. G., A. Proshutinsky, J. H. Morison, M. Steele, and M. B. Alkire, 2009: Rapid change in freshwater content of the Arctic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L10602.
  • Mears, C. A., and F. J. Wentz, 2009a: Construction of the RSS V3.2 lower-tropospheric temperature dataset from the MSU and AMSU microwave sounders. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 26, 1493–1509.
  • Mears, C. A., and F. J. Wentz, 2009b: Construction of the Remote Sensing Systems V3.2 atmospheric temperature records from the MSU and AMSU microwave sounders. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 26, 1040–1056.
  • Meijers, A. J. S., N. L. Bindoff, and S. R. Rintoul, 2011: Frontal movements and property fluxes: Contributions to heat and freshwater trends in the Southern Ocean. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 116, C08024.
  • Meinen, C. S., M. O. Baringer, and R. F. Garcia, 2010: Florida Current transport variability: An analysis of annual and longer-period signals. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 57, 835–846.
  • Menéndez, M., and P. L. Woodworth, 2010: Changes in extreme high water levels based on a quasi-global tide-gauge data set. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 115, C10011.
  • Menéndez, M., F. J. Méndez, I. J. Losada, and N. E. Graham, 2008: Variability of extreme wave heights in the northeast Pacific Ocean based on buoy measurements. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L22607.
  • Meredith, M. P., P. L. Woodworth, C. W. Hughes, and V. Stepanov, 2004: Changes in the ocean transport through Drake Passage during the 1980s and 1990s, forced by changes in the Southern Annular Mode. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L21305.
  • Merrifield, M. A., 2011: A shift in western tropical Pacific sea level trends during the 1990s. J. Clim., 24, 4126–4138.
  • Merrifield, M. A., and M. E. Maltrud, 2011: Regional sea level trends due to a Pacific trade wind intensification. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L21605.
  • Merrifield, M. A., S. T. Merrifield, and G. T. Mitchum, 2009: An anomalous recent acceleration of global sea level rise. J. Clim., 22, 5772–5781.
  • Merrifield, M. A., P. R. Thompson, and M. Lander, 2012: Multidecadal sea level anomalies and trends in the western tropical Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L13602.
  • Metzl, N., 2009: Decadal increase of oceanic carbon dioxide in Southern Indian Ocean surface waters (1991–2007). Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 56, 607–619.
  • Meyssignac, B., M. Becker, W. Llovel, and A. Cazenave, 2012: An assessment of two-dimensional past sea level reconstructions over 1950–2009 based on tide gauge data and different input sea level grids. Surv. Geophys., 33, 945–972.
  • Midorikawa, T., K. Nemoto, H. Kamiya, M. Ishii, and H. Y. Inoue, 2005: Persistently strong oceanic CO₂ sink in the western subtropical North Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L05612.
  • Midorikawa, T., et al., 2010: Decreasing pH trend estimated from 25–yr time series of carbonate parameters in the western North Pacific. Tellus B, 62, 649–659.
  • Mikaloff-Fletcher, S. E., et al., 2006: Inverse estimates of anthropogenic CO₂ uptake, transport, and storage by the ocean. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20, Gb2002.
  • Miller, L., and B. C. Douglas, 2007: Gyre-scale atmospheric pressure variations and their relation to 19th and 20th century sea level rise. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L16602.
  • Mitas, C. M., and A. Clement, 2005: Has the Hadley cell been strengthening in recent decades? Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L03809.
  • Mitchum, G. T., R. S. Nerem, M. A. Merrifield, and W. R. Gehrels, 2010: Modern sealevel- change estimates. In: Understanding Sea-Level Rise and Variability [J. A. Church, P. L. Woodworth, T. Aarup, and W. S. Wilson (eds.)]. Wiley-Blackwell, New York, NY, USA, 122-142.
  • Morison, J., R. Kwok, C. Peralta-Ferriz, M. Alkire, I. Rigor, R. Andersen, and M. Steele, 2012: Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways. Nature, 481, 66–70.
  • Morrow, R., G. Valladeau, and J. B. Sallee, 2008: Observed subsurface signature of Southern Ocean sea level rise. Prog. Oceanogr., 77, 351–366.
  • Murphy, D. M., S. Solomon, R. W. Portmann, K. H. Rosenlof, P. M. Forster, and T. Wong, 2009: An observationally based energy balance for the Earth since 1950. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 114, D17107. Nakano, T., I. Kaneko, T. Soga, H. Tsujino, T. Yasuda, H. Ishizaki, and M. Kamachi, 2007:
  • Mid-depth freshening in the North Pacific subtropical gyre observed along the JMA repeat and WOCE hydrographic sections. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L23608.
  • Nakanowatari, T., K. Ohshima, and M. Wakatsuchi, 2007: Warming and oxygen decrease of intermediate water in the northwestern North Pacific, originating from the Sea of Okhotsk, 1955–2004. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L04602.
  • Nerem, R. S., D. P. Chambers, C. Choe, and G. T. Mitchum, 2010: Estimating mean sea level change from the TOPEX and Jason altimeter missions. Mar. Geodesy, 33, 435–446.
  • Nerem, R. S., D. P. Chambers, E. W. Leuliette, G. T. Mitchum, and B. S. Giese, 1999: Variations in global mean sea level associated with the 1997–1998 ENSO event: Implications for measuring long term sea level change. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 3005–3008.
  • Olafsson, J., S. R. Olafsdottir, A. Benoit-Cattin, M. Danielsen, T. S. Arnarson, and T. Takahashi, 2009: Rate of Iceland Sea acidification from time series measurements. Biogeosciences, 6, 2661–2668.
  • Olsen, A., A. M. Omar, E. Jeansson, L. G. Anderson, and R. G. J. Bellerby, 2010: Nordic seas transit time distributions and anthropogenic CO₂. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 115, C05005.
  • Olsen, S. M., B. Hansen, D. Quadfasel, and S. Osterhus, 2008: Observed and modelled stability of overflow across the Greenland-Scotland ridge. Nature, 455, 519–22.
  • Ono, T., T. Midorikawa, Y. W. Watanabe, K. Tadokoro, and T. Saino, 2001: Temporal increases of phosphate and apparent oxygen utilization in the subsurface waters of western subarctic Pacific from 1968 to 1998. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3285–3288.
  • Orr, J. C., 2011: Recent and future changes in ocean carbonate chemistry. In: Ocean Acidification [J.-P. Gattuso and L. Hansson (eds.)]. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, and New York, NY, USA, pp. 41–66.
  • Orr, J. C., S. Pantoja, and H. O. Pörtner, 2005a: Introduction to special section: The ocean in a high-CO₂ world. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 110, C09S01.
  • Orr, J. C., et al., 2005b: Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature, 437, 681–686.
  • Orsi, A. H., G. C. Johnson, and J. L. Bullister, 1999: Circulation, mixing, and production of Antarctic Bottom Water. Prog. Oceanogr., 43, 55–109.
  • Østerhus, S., W. R. Turrell, S. Jonsson, and B. Hansen, 2005: Measured volume, heat, and salt fluxes from the Atlantic to the Arctic Mediterranean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L07603.
  • Palmer, M., and P. Brohan, 2011: Estimating sampling uncertainty in fixed-depth and fixed-isotherm estimates of ocean warming. Int. J. Climatol., 31, 980–986.
  • Palmer, M., K. Haines, S. Tett, and T. Ansell, 2007: Isolating the signal of ocean global warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L23610.
  • Park, G. H., et al., 2006: Large accumulation of anthropogenic CO₂ in the East (Japan) Sea and its significant impact on carbonate chemistry. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20, Gb4013.
  • Park, J., J. Obeysekera, M. Irizarry, J. Barnes, P. Trimble, and W. Park-Said, 2011: Storm surge projections and implications for water management in South Florida. Clim. Change, 107, 109–128.
  • Peltier, W. R., 2001: Global glacial isostatic adjustment and modern instrumental records of relative sea level history. In: Sea Level Rise [B. C. Douglas, M. S. Kearney, and S. P. Leatherman (eds.)]. Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp. 65–95.
  • Peltier, W. R., 2004: Global glacial isostasy and the surface of the ice-age earth: The ice-5G (VM2) model and grace. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 32, 111–149.
  • Peltier, W. R., R. Drummond, and K. Roy, 2012: Comment on “Ocean mass from GRACE and glacial isostatic adjustment” by D. P. Chambers et al. J. Geophys. Res.–Sol. Ea., 117, B11403.
  • Pérez, F. F., M. Vázquez-Rodríguez, H. Mercier, A. Velo, P. Lherminier, and A. F. Ríos, 2010: Trends of anthropogenic CO₂ storage in North Atlantic water masses. Biogeosciences, 7, 1789–1807.
  • Pierce, D. W., P. J. Gleckler, T. P. Barnett, B. D. Santer, and P. J. Durack, 2012: The fingerprint of human-induced changes in the ocean’s salinity and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L21704.
  • Pierce, D. W., T. P. Barnett, K. M. AchutaRao, P. J. Gleckler, J. M. Gregory, and W. M. Washington, 2006: Anthropogenic warming of the oceans: Observations and model results. J. Clim., 19, 1873–1900.
  • Pinker, R. T., H. M. Wang, and S. A. Grodsky, 2009: How good are ocean buoy observations of radiative fluxes? Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L10811.
  • Polovina, J. J., E. A. Howell, and M. Abecassis, 2008: Ocean’s least productive waters are expanding. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L03618.
  • Polyakov, I. V., A. V. Pnyushkov, and L. A. Timokhov, 2012: Warming of the Intermediate Atlantic Water of the Arctic Ocean in the 2000s. J. Clim., 25, 8362–8370.
  • Polyakov, I. V., V. A. Alexeev, U. S. Bhatt, E. I. Polyakova, and X. D. Zhang, 2010: North Atlantic warming: patterns of long-term trend and multidecadal variability. Clim. Dyn., 34, 439–457.
  • Polyakov, I. V., U. S. Bhatt, H. L. Simmons, D. Walsh, J. E. Walsh, and X. Zhang, 2005: Multidecadal variability of North Atlantic temperature and salinity during the twentieth century. J. Clim., 18, 4562–4581.
  • Polyakov, I. V., et al., 2008: Arctic ocean freshwater changes over the past 100 years and their causes. J. Clim., 21, 364–384.
  • Ponte, R. M., 2012: An assessment of deep steric height variability over the global ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L04601.
  • Potemra, J. T., and N. Schneider, 2007: Interannual variations of the Indonesian throughflow. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 112, C05035.
  • Proshutinsky, A., et al., 2009: Beaufort Gyre freshwater reservoir: State and variability from observations. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 114, C00A10.
  • Provoost, P., S. van Heuven, K. Soetaert, R. W. P. M. Laane, and J. J. Middelburg, 2010: Seasonal and long-term changes in pH in the Dutch coastal zone. Biogeosciences, 7, 3869–3878.
  • Purkey, S. G., and G. C. Johnson, 2010: Warming of global abyssal and deep Southern Ocean waters between the 1990s and 2000s: Contributions to global heat and sea level rise budgets. J. Clim., 23, 6336–6351. ——, 2012: Global contraction of Antarctic Bottom Water between the 1980s and 2000s. J. Clim., 25, 5830–5844.
  • Purkey, S. G., and G. C. Johnson, 2013: Antarctic Bottom Water warming and freshening: Contributions to sea level rise, ocean freshwater budgets, and global heat gain. J. Clim., doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12–00834.1.
  • Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2006: Decadal variability in the large-scale sea surface height field of the South Pacific Ocean: Observations and causes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 1751–1762.
  • Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2010: Interannual-to-decadal variability in the bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current off the Philippines. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40, 2525–2538.
  • Qiu, B., and S. Chen, 2012: Multi-decadal sea level and gyre circulation variability in the northwestern tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 42, 193–206.
  • Quay, P., R. Sonnerup, T. Westby, J. Stutsman, and A. McNichol, 2003: Changes in the C-13/C-12 of dissolved inorganic carbon in the ocean as a tracer of anthropogenic CO₂ uptake. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 17, 1004.
  • Rabe, B., et al., 2011: An assessment of Arctic Ocean freshwater content changes from the 1990s to the 2006–2008 period. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 58, 173–185.
  • Rahmstorf, S., and M. Vermeer, 2011: Discussion of: Houston, J.R. and Dean, R.G., 2011. Sea-level acceleration based on U.S. tide gauges and extensions of previous global-gauge analyses. J. Coast. Res., 27(3), 409–417. J. Coast. Res., 27, 784–787.
  • Rawlins, M. A., et al., 2010: Analysis of the Arctic System for freshwater cycle intensification: Observations and expectations. J. Clim., 23, 5715–5737.
  • Ray, R. D., and B. C. Douglas, 2011: Experiments in reconstructing twentieth-century sea levels. Prog. Oceanogr., 91, 496–515.
  • Ren, L., and S. C. Riser, 2010: Observations of decadal time scale salinity changes in the subtropical thermocline of the North Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 57, 1161–1170.
  • Reverdin, G., 2010: North Atlantic subpolar gyre surface variability (1895–2009). J. Clim., 23, 4571–4584.
  • Reverdin, G., F. Durand, J. Mortensen, F. Schott, H. Valdimarsson, and W. Zenk, 2002:
  • Recent changes in the surface salinity of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 107, 8010.
  • Rhein, M., et al., 2011: Deep water formation, the subpolar gyre, and the meridional overturning circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 58, 1819–1832.
  • Rienecker, M. M., et al., 2011: MERRA: NASA’s Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications. J. Clim., 24, 3624–3648.
  • Rignot, E., J. L. Bamber, M. R. Van Den Broeke, C. Davis, Y. H. Li, W. J. Van De Berg, and E. Van Meijgaard, 2008: Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modelling. Nature Geosci., 1, 106–110.
  • Rintoul, S. R., 2007: Rapid freshening of Antarctic Bottom Water formed in the Indian and Pacific oceans. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L06606.
  • Rintoul, S. R., S. Sokolov, and J. Church, 2002: A 6 year record of baroclinic transport variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current at 140°E derived from expendable bathythermograph and altimeter measurements. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 107, 3155.
  • Robertson, R., M. Visbeck, A. L. Gordon, and E. Fahrbach, 2002: Long-term temperature trends in the deep waters of the Weddell Sea. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 49, 4791–4806.
  • Roemmich, D., and J. Gilson, 2009: The 2004–2008 mean and annual cycle of temperature, salinity, and steric height in the global ocean from the Argo Program. Prog. Oceanogr., 82, 81–100.
  • Roemmich, D., and J. Gilson, 2011: The global ocean imprint of ENSO. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L13606.
  • Roemmich, D., W. J. Gould, and J. Gilson, 2012: 135 years of global ocean warming between the Challenger expedition and the Argo Programme. Nature Clim. Change, 2, 425–428.
  • Roemmich, D., J. Gilson, R. Davis, P. Sutton, S. Wijffels, and S. Riser, 2007: Decadal spinup of the South Pacific subtropical gyre. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 162–173.
  • Ruggiero, P., P. D. Komar, and J. C. Allan, 2010: Increasing wave heights and extreme value projections: The wave climate of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Coast. Engng., 57, 539–552.
  • Sabine, C. L., et al., 2005: Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP): Results and data. ORNL/CDIAC-145, NDP-083. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, 110 pp.
  • Sabine, C. L., et al., 2004: The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO₂. Science, 305, 367–371.
  • Saha, S., et al., 2010: The NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 91, 1015–1057.
  • Sallenger, A. H., K. S. Doran, and P. A. Howd, 2012: Hotspot of accelerated sea-level rise on the Atlantic coast of North America. Nature Clim. Change, 2, 884–888.
  • Santana-Casiano, J. M., M. González-Dávila, M. J. Rueda, O. Llinas, and E. F. González-Dávila, 2007: The interannual variability of oceanic CO₂ parameters in the northeast Atlantic subtropical gyre at the ESTOC site. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, GB1015.
  • Sarafanov, A., A. Falina, A. Sokov, and A. Demidov, 2008: Intense warming and salinification of intermediate waters of southern origin in the eastern subpolar North Atlantic in the 1990s to mid-2000s. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 113, C12022.
  • Sarmiento, J. L., et al., 2010: Trends and regional distributions of land and ocean carbon sinks. Biogeosciences, 7, 2351–2367.
  • Schanze, J. J., R. W. Schmitt, and L. L. Yu, 2010: The global oceanic freshwater cycle: A state-of-the-art quantification. J. Mar. Res., 68, 569–595.
  • Schauer, U., and A. Beszczynska-Möller, 2009: Problems with estimation and interpretation of oceanic heat transport – conceptual remarks for the case of Fram Strait in the Arctic Ocean. Ocean Sci., 5, 487–494.
  • Schmidtko, S., and G. C. Johnson, 2012: Multi-decadal warming and shoaling of Antarctic Intermediate Water. J. Clim., 25, 201–221.
  • Schmitt, R. W., 2008: Salinity and the global water cycle. Oceanography, 21, 12–19.
  • Schneider, T., P. A. O’Gorman, and X. J. Levine, 2010: Water vapor and the dynamics of climate changes. Rev. Geophys., 48, Rg3001.
  • Schuster, U., and A. J. Watson, 2007: A variable and decreasing sink for atmospheric CO₂ in the North Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 112, C11006.
  • Schuster, U., et al., 2013: An assessment of the Atlantic and Arctic sea-air CO₂ fluxes, 1990–2009. Biogeosciences, 10, 607–627.
  • Seitzinger, S. P., et al., 2010: Global river nutrient export: A scenario analysis of past and future trends. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 24, Gb0a08.
  • Semedo, A., K. Suselj, A. Rutgersson, and A. Sterl, 2011: A global view on the wind sea and swell climate and variability from ERA-40. J. Clim., 24, 1461–1479.
  • Send, U., M. Lankhorst, and T. Kanzow, 2011: Observation of decadal change in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation using 10 years of continuous transport data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L24606.
  • Shepherd, A., D. Wingham, and E. Rignot, 2004: Warm ocean is eroding West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L23402.
  • Shiklomanov, A. I., and R. B. Lammers, 2009: Record Russian river discharge in 2007 and the limits of analysis. Environ. Res. Lett., 4, 045015.
  • Smith, D. M., and J. M. Murphy, 2007: An objective ocean temperature and salinity analysis using covariances from a global climate model. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 112, C02022.
  • Smith, R. O., H. L. Bryden, and K. Stansfield, 2008: Observations of new western Mediterranean deep water formation using Argo floats 2004–2006. Ocean Sci., 4, 133–149.
  • Smith, T. M., P. A. Arkin, and M. R. P. Sapiano, 2009: Reconstruction of near-global annual precipitation using correlations with sea surface temperature and sea level pressure. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 114, D12107.
  • Smith, T. M., P. A. Arkin, L. Ren, and S. S. P. Shen, 2012: Improved reconstruction of global precipitation since 1900. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 29, 1505–1517.
  • Sokolov, S., and S. R. Rintoul, 2009: Circumpolar structure and distribution of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current fronts: 2. Variability and relationship to sea surface height. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 114, C11019.
  • Spada, G., and G. Galassi, 2012: New estimates of secular sea level rise from tide gauge data and GIA modelling. Geophys. J. Int., 191, 1067–1094.
  • Spence, P., J. C. Fyfe, A. Montenegro, and A. J. Weaver, 2010: Southern Ocean response to strengthening winds in an eddy-permitting global climate model. J. Clim., 23, 5332–5343.
  • Sprintall, J., S. Wijffels, T. Chereskin, and N. Bray, 2002: The JADE and WOCE I10/ IR6 Throughflow sections in the southeast Indian Ocean. Part 2: velocity and transports. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 49, 1363–1389.
  • Sprintall, J., S. E. Wijffels, R. Molcard, and I. Jaya, 2009: Direct estimates of the Indonesian Throughflow entering the Indian Ocean: 2004–2006. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 114, C07001.
  • Stammer, D. et al, 2010: Ocean Information Provided Through Ensemble Ocean Syntheses in Proceedings of OceanObs’09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison, D.E. & Stammer, D., Eds., European Space Agency, ESA Publication WPP-306, doi:10.5270/OceanObs09.cwp.85
  • Steele, M., and W. Ermold, 2007: Steric sea level change in the Northern Seas. J. Clim., 20, 403–417.
  • Steinfeldt, R., M. Rhein, J. L. Bullister, and T. Tanhua, 2009: Inventory changes in anthropogenic carbon from 1997–2003 in the Atlantic Ocean between 20°S and 65°N. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, GB3010.
  • Stendardo, I., and N. Gruber, 2012: Oxygen trends over five decades in the North Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 117, C11004.
  • Sterl, A., and S. Caires, 2005: Climatology, variability and extrema of ocean waves: The web-based KNMI/ERA-40 wave atlas. Int. J. Climatol., 25, 963–977.
  • Stott, P. A., R. T. Sutton, and D. M. Smith, 2008: Detection and attribution of Atlantic salinity changes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L21702.
  • Stramma, L., A. Oschlies, and S. Schmidtko, 2012: Mismatch between observed and modeled trends in dissolved upper-ocean oxygen over the last 50 yr. Biogeosciences, 9, 4045–4057.
  • Stramma, L., G. C. Johnson, J. Sprintall, and V. Mohrholz, 2008: Expanding oxygenminimum zones in the tropical oceans. Science, 320, 655–658.
  • Stramma, L., S. Schmidtko, L. A. Levin, and G. C. Johnson, 2010: Ocean oxygen minima expansions and their biological impacts. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 57, 587–595.
  • Sturges, W., and B. G. Hong, 1995: Wind forcing of the Atlantic thermocline along 32°N at low-frequencies. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 1706–1715.
  • Sturges, W., and B. C. Douglas, 2011: Wind effects on estimates of sea level rise. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 116, C06008.
  • Sugimoto, S., and K. Hanawa, 2010: The wintertime wind stress curl field in the North Atlantic and its relation to atmospheric teleconnection patterns. J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 1687–1694.
  • Susanto, R. D., A. Ffield, A. L. Gordon, and T. R. Adi, 2012: Variability of Indonesian throughflow within Makassar Strait, 2004–2009. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 117, C09013.
  • Swart, N. C., and J. C. Fyfe, 2012: Observed and simulated changes in the Southern Hemisphere surface westerly wind-stress. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L16711.
  • Swart, S., S. Speich, I. J. Ansorge, G. J. Goni, S. Gladyshev, and J. R. E. Lutjeharms, 2008: Transport and variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current South of Africa. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 113, C09014.
  • Swift, J. H., and A. H. Orsi, 2012: Sixty-four days of hydrography and storms: RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer’s 2011 S04P Cruise. Oceanography, 25, 54–55.
  • Takahashi, T., S. C. Sutherland, R. A. Feely, and R. Wanninkhof, 2006: Decadal change of the surface water pCO₂ in the North Pacific: A synthesis of 35 years of observations. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 111, C07s05.
  • Takahashi, T., et al., 2009: Climatological mean and decadal change in surface ocean pCO₂, and net sea-air CO₂ flux over the global oceans (vol 56, pg 554, 2009). Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 56, 2075–2076.
  • Tanaka, H. L., N. Ishizaki, and A. Kitoh, 2004: Trend and interannual variability of Walker, monsoon and Hadley circulations defined by velocity potential in the upper troposphere. Tellus A, 56, 250–269.
  • Tanhua, T., E. P. Jones, E. Jeansson, S. Jutterstrom, W. M. Smethie, D. W. R. Wallace, and L. G. Anderson, 2009: Ventilation of the Arctic Ocean: Mean ages and inventories of anthropogenic CO₂ and CFC-11. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 114, C01002.
  • Terray, L., L. Corre, S. Cravatte, T. Delcroix, G. Reverdin, and A. Ribes, 2012: Near surface salinity as nature’s rain gauge to detect human influence on the tropical water cycle. J. Clim., 25, 958–977.
  • Timmermann, A., S. McGregor, and F. F. Jin, 2010: Wind effects on past and future regional sea level trends in the southern Indo-Pacific. J. Clim., 23, 4429–4437.
  • Tokinaga, H., and S.-P. Xie, 2011: Wave- and Anemometer-based Sea surface Wind (WASWind) for climate change analysis. J. Clim., 24, 267–285.
  • Toole, J. M., R. G. Curry, T. M. Joyce, M. McCartney, and B. Pena-Molino, 2011: Transport of the North Atlantic Deep Western Boundary Current about 39°N, 70°W: 2004–2008. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 58, 1768–1780.
  • Trenberth, K. E., and L. Smith, 2005: The mass of the atmosphere: A constraint on global analyses. J. Clim., 18, 864–875.
  • Trenberth, K. E., J. T. Fasullo, and J. Kiehl, 2009: Earth’s global energy budget. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 90, 311–323.
  • Trenberth, K. E., J. T. Fasullo, and J. Mackaro, 2011: Atmospheric moisture transports from ocean to land and global energy flows in reanalyses. J. Clim., 24, 4907– 4924
  • Trenberth, K. E., et al., 2007: Observations: Surface and atmospheric climate change. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H. L. Miller (eds.)] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
  • Tsimplis, M. N., and A. G. P. Shaw, 2010: Seasonal sea level extremes in the Mediterranean Sea and at the Atlantic European coasts. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 10, 1457–1475.
  • Uppala, S. M., et al., 2005: The ERA-40 re-analysis. Q. J. R. Meteor. Soc., 131, 2961– 3012
  • Våge, K., et al., 2009: Surprising return of deep convection to the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean in winter 2007–2008. Nature Geosci., 2, 67–72.
  • Valdimarsson, H., O. S. Astthorsson, and J. Palsson, 2012: Hydrographic variability in Icelandic waters during recent decades and related changes in distribution of some fish species. Ices J. Mar. Sci., 69, 816–825.
  • Vargas-Yáñez, M., et al., 2010: How much is the western Mediterranean really warming and salting? J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 115, C04001.
  • Vecchi, G. A., B. J. Soden, A. T. Wittenberg, I. M. Held, A. Leetmaa, and M. J. Harrison, 2006: Weakening of tropical Pacific atmospheric circulation due to anthropogenic forcing. Nature, 441, 73–76.
  • Vilibic, I., and J. Sepic, 2010: Long-term variability and trends of sea level storminess and extremes in European Seas. Global Planet. Change, 71, 1–12.
  • von Schuckmann, K., and P. Y. Le Traon, 2011: How well can we derive Global Ocean Indicators from Argo data? Ocean Sci., 7, 783–791.
  • Wainwright, L., G. Meyers, S. Wijffels, and L. Pigot, 2008: Change in the Indonesian Throughflow with the climatic shift of 1976/77. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L03604.
  • Wang, C. Z., S. F. Dong, and E. Munoz, 2010: Seawater density variations in the North Atlantic and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Clim. Dyn., 34, 953–968.
  • Wang, X., Y. Feng, and V. R. Swail, 2012: North Atlantic wave height trends as reconstructed from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L18705.
  • Wang, X. L. L., and V. R. Swail, 2006: Climate change signal and uncertainty in projections of ocean wave heights. Clim. Dyn., 26, 109–126.
  • Wang, X. L. L., V. R. Swail, F. W. Zwiers, X. B. Zhang, and Y. Feng, 2009: Detection of external influence on trends of atmospheric storminess and northern oceans wave heights. Clim. Dyn., 32, 189–203.
  • Wanninkhof, R., W. E. Asher, D. T. Ho, C. Sweeney, and W. R. McGillis, 2009: Advances in quantifying air-sea gas exchange and environmental forcing. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci., 1, 213–244.
  • Wanninkhof, R., S. C. Doney, J. L. Bullister, N. M. Levine, M. Warner, and N. Gruber, 2010: Detecting anthropogenic CO₂ changes in the interior Atlantic Ocean between 1989 and 2005. J. Geophys. Res., 115, C11028.
  • Wanninkhof, R., G. H. Park, T. Takahashi, R. A. Feely, J. L. Bullister, and S. C. Doney, 2013: Changes in deep-water CO₂ concentrations over the last several decades determined from discrete pCO₂ measurements. Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 74, 48–63.
  • WASA-Group, 1998: Changing waves and storm in the Northern Atlantic? Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 79, 741–760.
  • Watson, A. J., et al., 2009: Tracking the variable North Atlantic sink for atmospheric CO₂ . Science, 326, 1391–1393.
  • Watson, P. J., 2011: Is there evidence yet of an acceleration in mean sea level rise around mainland Australia? J. Coast. Res., 27, 368–377.
  • Waugh, D. M., F. Primeau, T. DeVries, and M. Holzer, 2013: Recent changes in the ventilation of the Southern Oceans. Science, 339, 568–570.
  • Waugh, D. W., T. M. Hall, B. I. McNeil, R. Key, and R. J. Matear, 2006: Anthropogenic CO₂ in the oceans estimated using transit-time distributions. Tellus B, 58, 376– 389
  • Wentz, F. J., and L. Ricciardulli, 2011: Comment on “Global trends in wind speed and wave height.” Science, 334, 905–905.
  • Wentz, F. J., L. Ricciardulli, K. Hilburn, and C. Mears, 2007: How much more rain will global warming bring? Science, 317, 233–235.
  • Wenzel, M., and J. Schroeter, 2010: Reconstruction of regional mean sea level anomalies from tide gauges using neural networks. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 115, C08013.
  • Whitney, F. A., H. J. Freeland, and M. Robert, 2007: Persistently declining oxygen levels in the interior waters of the eastern subarctic Pacific. Prog. Oceanogr., 75, 179–199.
  • Wijffels, S. E., et al., 2008: Changing expendable bathythermograph fall rates and their impact on estimates of thermosteric sea level rise. J. Clim., 21, 5657–5672.
  • Wild, M., 2009: Global dimming and brightening: A review. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 114, D00D16.
  • Willis, J. K., 2010: Can in situ floats and satellite altimeters detect long-term changes in Atlantic Ocean overturning? Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L06602.
  • Willis, J. K., D. Roemmich, and B. Cornuelle, 2004: Interannual variability in upper ocean heat content, temperature, and thermosteric expansion on global scales. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 109, C12036.
  • Willis, J. K., D. P. Chambers, and R. S. Nerem, 2008: Assessing the globally averaged sea level budget on seasonal to interannual timescales. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 113, C06015.
  • Willis, J. K., D. P. Chambers, C.-Y. Kuo, and C. K. Shum, 2010: Global sea level rise: Recent progress and challenges for the decade to come. Oceanography, 23, 26–35.
  • Wong, A. P. S., N. L. Bindoff, and J. A. Church, 1999: Large-scale freshening of intermediate waters in the Pacific and Indian oceans. Nature, 400, 440–443.
  • Wong, C. S., L. S. Xie, and W. W. Hsieh, 2007: Variations in nutrients, carbon and other hydrographic parameters related to the 1976/77 and 1988/89 regime shifts in the sub-arctic Northeast Pacific. Prog. Oceanogr., 75, 326–342.
  • Woodworth, P. L., 1990: A search for accelerations in records of European mean sealevel. Int. J. Climatol., 10, 129–143.
  • Woodworth, P. L., 1999: High waters at Liverpool since 1768: the UK’s longest sea level record. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1589–1592.
  • Woodworth, P. L., and D. L. Blackman, 2004: Evidence for systematic changes in extreme high waters since the mid-1970s. J. Clim., 17, 1190–1197.
  • Woodworth, P. L., N. Pouvreau, and G. Woeppelmann, 2010: The gyre-scale circulation of the North Atlantic and sea level at Brest. Ocean Sci., 6, 185–190.
  • Woodworth, P. L., M. Menéndez, and W. R. Gehrels, 2011: Evidence for century timescale acceleration in mean sea levels and for recent changes in extreme sea levels. Surv. Geophys., 32, 603–618.
  • Woodworth, P. L., N. J. White, S. Jevrejeva, S. J. Holgate, J. A. Church, and W. R. Gehrels, 2009: Evidence for the accelerations of sea level on multi-decade and century timescales. Int. J. Climatol., 29, 777–789.
  • Wöppelmann, G., et al., 2009: Rates of sea-level change over the past century in a geocentric reference frame. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L12607.
  • Wu, L., et al., 2012: Enhanced warming over the global subtropical western boundary currents. Nature Clim. Change, 2, 161–166.
  • Wunsch, C., 2010: Variability of the Indo-Pacific Ocean exchanges. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 50, 157–173.
  • Xue, Y., B. Huang, Z.-Z. Hu, A. Kumar, C. Wen, D. Behringer, and S. Nadiga, 2010: An assessment of oceanic variability in the NCEP climate forecast system reanalysis. Clim. Dyn., 37, 2541–2550.
  • Xue, Y., et al., 2012: A comparative analysis of upper ocean heat content variability from an ensemble of operational ocean reanalyses. J. Clim., 25, 6905–6929.
  • Yamamoto-Kawai, M., F. A. McLaughlin, E. C. Carmack, S. Nishino, K. Shimada, and N. Kurita, 2009: Surface freshening of the Canada Basin, 2003–2007: River runoff versus sea ice meltwater. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 114, C00A05.
  • Yang, X. Y., R. X. Huang, and D. X. Wang, 2007: Decadal changes of wind stress over the Southern Ocean associated with Antarctic ozone depletion. J. Clim., 20, 3395–3410.
  • Yashayaev, I., 2007: Hydrographic changes in the Labrador Sea, 1960–2005. Prog. Oceanogr., 73, 242–276.
  • Yashayaev, I., and J. W. Loder, 2009: Enhanced production of Labrador Sea Water in 2008. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L01606.
  • Yoshikawa-Inoue, H., and M. Ishii, 2005: Variations and trends of CO₂ in the surface seawater in the Southern Ocean south of Australia between 1969 and 2002. Tellus B, 57, 58–69.
  • Young, I. R., S. Zieger, and A. V. Babanin, 2011a: Global trends in wind speed and wave height. Science, 332, 451–455.
  • Young, I. R., A. V. Babanin, and S. Zieger, 2011b: Response to comment on “Global trends in wind speed and wave height”. Science, 334, 905–905.
  • Yu, L., 2011: A global relationship between the ocean water cycle and near-surface salinity. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 116, C10025.
  • Yu, L., and R. A. Weller, 2007: Objectively analyzed air-sea flux fields for the global ice-free oceans (1981–2005). Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 88, 527–539.
  • Yu, L. S., 2007: Global variations in oceanic evaporation (1958–2005): The role of the changing wind speed. J. Clim., 20, 5376–5390.
  • Yu, L. S., X. Z. Jin, and R. A. Weller, 2007: Annual, seasonal, and interannual variability of air-sea heat fluxes in the Indian Ocean. J. Clim., 20, 3190–3209.
  • Zenk, W., and E. Morozov, 2007: Decadal warming of the coldest Antarctic Bottom Water flow through the Vema Channel. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L14607.
  • Zhang, X. B., and J. A. Church, 2012: Sea level trends, interannual and decadal variability in the Pacific Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L21701.

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.