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1514.1.4 Summary of Climate Phenomena and their Impact on Regional Climate

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Box 14.1, Figure 1 illustrates the large-scale climate phenomena assessed in this chapter. Many of the climate phenomena are evident in the map of annual mean rainfall (central panel). The most abundant annual rainfall occurs in the tropical convergence zones: Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over the Pacific, Atlantic and African equatorial belt (see Section 14.3.1.1), South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) over central South Pacific (see Section 14.3.1.2) and South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) over Southern South America and Southern Atlantic (see Section 14.3.1.3). In the global monsoon domain (white contours on the map), large amounts of precipitation occur but only in certain seasons (see Section 14.2.1). Local maxima in precipitation are also apparent over the major storm track regions in mid-latitudes (see Section 14.7.2). Box 14.1 Figure 1 also illustrates surface air temperature (left panels) and precipitation (right panels) teleconnection patterns for ENSO (in December to February and June to August; see Section 14.4), NAO (in December to February; see Section 14.5.1) and SAM (in September to November; see Section 14.5.2). The teleconnection patterns were obtained by taking the correlation between monthly gridded temperature and precipitation anomalies and indices for the modes (see Box 14.1 definitions). It can be seen that all three modes have far-reaching effects on temperature and precipitation in many parts of the world. Box 14.1, Table 1 briefly summarizes the main regional impacts of different well-known modes of climate variability.

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